Israel and Lebanon: Refuge in Fiction

Click to Listen to the Show (24 MB MP3)

What war does, what violence does, is that it somehow sucks life out of people. It turns them into… one-dimensional, flat creatures. For a writer interested in the work of imagination and creativity… to reintroduce and affirm the importance of art in the life of a people, not only the content, but also art as form, as manners of doing and looking at things… that’s to tell [people] that humanity is not just about surviving, not just about an ultimate purpose like jihad or freedom or democracy… Humanity is far too complicated and too rich.

Samir El-Youssef

Keret and el-Youssef [ontheface / Flickr]

We first read about Etgar Keret and Samir El-Youssef in Lisa Goldman’s blog two weeks ago. They’re both writers — of novels, screenplays, short stories, essays, and comics. Keret is an Israeli, El-Youssef a Palestinian who grew up in a refugee camp in Lebanon and now lives in London. And they’re friends.

In the culmination of another shattering week of news, and of Open Source shows about Israeli approaches to the war, the optics of the conflict, and a generational history of the Muslim world, we’re talking to these two friends together.

We’ll be talking about a writer’s consciousness in war, and a writer’s identity in a war-torn region. About what it means to be a Palestinian author or a Muslim one, an Israeli author or a Jewish one. We’ll ask them about literature as a path to empathy, or as an experience of the other, or simply as a ticket out. We’re wondering: Who speaks for Palestinians? For Israelis?

And we’re also wondering: If you were at the after-dinner table tonight, with an Israeli and a Palestinian friend, what would you talk about?

Etgar Keret

Author, Pizzeria Kamikaze and The Nimrod Flipout, among others

Co-author, Gaza Blues

Samir El-Youssef

Writer

Co-author, Gaza Blues

Extra Credit Reading
Lisa Goldman, Writing about the human condition, On the Face, November 29 2005.

Lisa Goldman, Letters of peace, On the Face, July 21 2006.

Ohoud, Gaza Blues, arabesque rhapsody, March 8 2006.

Harry, Etgar Keret on the elections, the view from here, April 2 2006.

Dina Kraft, The Diaspora Connection, The Jerusalem Post, June 14 2006.

Aaron Hamburger, A Moment with Etgar Keret, KGB BarLit, Summer 2006.

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  • joshua hendrickson

    Ah, the literary point of view! I am looking forward to tonight’s show. And as true literature is a great uniter of all disparate peoples, I would like to pose a question that unites, rather than divides.

    My question is this, to both authors:

    If religion could somehow, magically, be factored out of the equation, what cultural or plain human similarities would remain to bring together the Israelis and the Palestinians?

  • jdyer

    “If religion could somehow, magically, be factored out of the equation, what cultural or plain human similarities would remain to bring together the Israelis and the Palestinians?”

    I am not sure writers can help since most people mistrust writers these days.

    The best they can do is admit their limitations and try not to impose their views on an unwilling public. Better to acknowledge the rage and give voice to it rather than offer solutions.

    I think that each side needs time out from the conflict through separation. Only later will they be able to reach out to each other.

    Right now they are like a couple stuck in a bad marriage. There needs to be a divorce before there can some sort of undertanding.

    Later on each side will need to learn about the history and culture of the other. It’s not important that they accept everything the other sides believes, but it is important that they know what it is the other side believes without distortion.

  • jdyer

    Adendum:

    “If religion could somehow, magically, be factored out of the equation, what cultural or plain human similarities would remain to bring together the Israelis and the Palestinians?�

    I am not sure writers can help since most people mistrust writers these days.

    The best they can do is admit their limitations and try not to impose their views on an unwilling public. Better to acknowledge the rage and give voice to it rather than offer solutions.

    I think that each side needs time out from the conflict through separation. Only later will they be able to reach out to each other.

    Right now they are like a couple stuck in a bad marriage. There needs to be a divorce before there can some sort of undertanding.

    Later on each side will need to learn about the history and culture of the other. It’s not important that they accept everything the other sides believes, but it is important that they know what it is the other side believes without distortion.

    Here is the place were writers like Keret and el-Youssef can help.

  • joshua hendrickson

    Jdyer,

    Perhaps you are right and most people mistrust writers these days.

    I am not one of those.

    I agree that writers — including myself — can and should admit our limitations, but that is most definitely (and defiantly) NOT the “best” we can do. As far as trying not to impose our views on an unwilling public: what the hell else are writers trying to do, but communicate our views through various literary devices to that tiny fraction of the public that willingly reads books?

    I’m not talking about journalists; I’m talking about novelists, storytellers, men and women of letters, who through the use of fiction–the only truly trustworthy medium open to us, because it alone admits it is made up of lies–may illuminate our world, enlighten some readers, and provoke the imagination. And it is only through the imagination that anything–the enemy’s side or even your own side–can truly be understood.

    On another note, how do you propose that the two sides separate? It sounds like a good, common-sense idea, but how on Earth would it work out?

  • joshua hendrickson

    I’d like to add to what I said in my last post. I called fiction “the only truly trustworthy medium” because it “admits it is made up of lies.”

    In saying so, I probably come across as sounding as though I believe all non-fiction, whether journalism, autobiography, history, or religious scripture, are lies that hide behind the rubric of truth.

    Well, let me make it clear that I do believe that. Not to say that most writers in those modes are consciously lying; they believe what they believe, and some are more scrupulous than others. But I trust only fiction.

    So I ask our two authors:

    Is the open lie of fiction more trustworthy than the concealed lie of journalism?

    Or, in other words:

    Is the imagination more honest than our conception of fact?

  • siennaf1

    How about this for a solution to the Israeli – Palestinian conflict:

    One state ! since obviously both nations strive to live on the same piece of land, which both see as a “Homeland�, why not share it then ?!

    Call it “Palel� or Isralestine� or whatever. One state which is at the same time a home to the Jewish people, and to the Palestinians form all around the world.

    Just like Jews today automatically become Israeli citizens and receive financial help upon arriving in Israel, so will Palestinian refugees automatically receive “Palel� citizenship and financial help.

    The new state will have a constitution that asserts civil rights for all it’s citizens, and which balances the different needs of each nation. The constitution will be a secular one and will make a clear separation of church and state.

    In a previous discussion a question was asked : “If religion could somehow, magically, be factored out of the equation, what cultural or plain human similarities would remain to bring together the Israelis and the Palestinians?�

    Knowing the two nations I think that if we remove the religious aspect, the two nations have a lot more in common that they care to admit.

    I think this can be achieved if the two learn to trust and respect each other.

    Or is the hatred too deep??

  • Lisa Hochman

    Unfortunately it took me to the end of the show to find this website but I had 1 request and 1 question.

    I really wanted to hear the end of the story of Samir’s uncle who had a satarists view of the world around him. Unforunately you never returned to after the break.

    Question for Samir – he mentioned his families reaction to the retoric in the refugee camp and their ability to not get caught up in it but remain more observers rather than participants. What facinates me are the stories of people who raise above their situation. Is there a common thread that identifies people who do not become one dimentional ( I would personally characterise it as identifying with the most primitive, tribal aspect of oneself). Is there a quantifiable characteristic of the Victor Frankles, the El-Youssef’s or anyone who who manages to maintain a broader view and open heart that allows them to see beyond their immediate experience no matter how repressive? Is their a trait that prevents them from become the ‘victim’.

    Ques – What qualities or values did his family have that helped them go beyond their immediate circumstances –to remain open, creative and apart from the mass mindset?

  • jdyer

    joshua hendrickson Says:

    August 3rd, 2006 at 3:21 pm

    “Perhaps you are right and most people mistrust writers these days. I am not one of those. I agree that writers — including myself — can and should admit our limitations, but that is most definitely (and defiantly) NOT the “best� we can do. As far as trying not to impose our views on an unwilling public: what the hell else are writers trying to do, but communicate our views through various literary devices to that tiny fraction of the public that willingly reads books?�

    Joshua, I wasn’t talking about individual writers and certainly not about myself. I have a life long respect for great fiction writers. I even read those writers whose politics I abhor be they on the extreme right like the French Ferdinand Celine, or on the extreme left like the Communist Jose Saramago.

    My point which I probably didn’t make clear was about writers speaking ex cathedra, as it were. When a writer like A. B. Yehoshua whose novels I like make political statements I tend to treat them with the same skepticism than I do those of anyone else. Too many writers these days think that they need to get on a soapbox and try to influence people’s views about their pet causes. In this they are no different from many an actor.

    They don’t realize though that the only impact they have on their public is through their fiction. Even there the impact they have is hard to measure since all great fiction deals in ambiguity. This to my mind is the greatest contribution a writer can have on his public: to alert us to the ambiguities of daily existence. Signing manifestos, making political speeches reduces them to political hacks. It is because so many writers and actors have taken to politics that their influence has dwindled to almost nothingness.

    As private citizens of course they have a right (a duty) to participate in political life. There is something fake, though, about an artist trying to tell people how to think politically.

    This what I meant when I said that most readers mistrust writers when they pontificate about politics.

    btw: what kind of fiction do you write? Where have you published your work?

  • jdyer

    siennaf1 Says:

    August 3rd, 2006 at 8:11 pm

    “How about this for a solution to the Israeli – Palestinian conflict:

    One state ! since obviously both nations strive to live on the same piece of land, which both see as a “Homelandâ€?, why not share it then ?!”

    The problem with a one state solution is that it will abolish the Jewish State and turn Israel (whatever you chose to call it) into another Arab State. This is inevitable given the demographic realities.

    For Jews this is a non starter since they desire a country of their own where their national language Hebrew will be national language; and where they can freely give expression to their culture in that language.

    There are already more than a dozen Arab countries where Arabic is the national language and there is surely room in a tiny corner of that vast Middle Eastern peninsula for a Jewish State.

  • jdyer

    Joshua,

    “On another note, how do you propose that the two sides separate? It sounds like a good, common-sense idea, but how on Earth would it work out?”

    Well, you set up a Palestinian State in Gaza and on most of the West Bank. The Palestinian Arabs will then be citizens of their state just as the Jews are citizens of Israel.

    There are also, I should point out, a million plus Israeli Arabs living in Israel as citizens. Those will continue to be citizens of Israel which is a pluralistic society.

    The Arabs have already said that they would no welcome the Jews living on the West Bank as citizens of a Palestinian State. This means that the Jews living there will have to be moved back to Israel proper.

  • Old Nick

    Wow.

    I’ll write up a full appreciation of this show after get the podcast tomorrow, but for now, I have to say this was the most heartening 53 minutes of radio I’ve heard in months. It was excellent—and moving—on a thousand different levels. Even Chris, our link to these two great men and writers, gave us a gem when he said, in effect:

    “That’s the goal! Less national identity in favor of a worldly one!�

    Think about that: the only entities in the world with ‘global citizenship’ are the transnational corporations who prey on a world too divided to reign in their exploitations. The only antidote to this deplorable condition is ‘world citizenship’ for all, and the concomitant relinquishment of our petty nationalisms.

    Thank you, Christopher Lydon.

    Meanwhile, it’s patently obvious that Samir El-Youseff should be the next Israeli prime minister, and that he can find Israel’s ‘reliable Palestinian partner’ in none other than Etgar Keret, who should be the Palestinian state’s first President!

    And no, I didn’t unintentionally confuse their nationalities. (If you don’t know what I’m talking about, you must have missed the broadcast.)

    It’s a doubly appropriate ‘exchange of foundlings’ since Youseff is a (sensible) atheist and Israel is secular, while many God-believing Palestinians might welcome a fellow believer like Etgar!

    I’ll be ordering their novels from Powell’s within minutes.

    One last thought: imagine the establishment of a real and viable Palestinian state. It will require a ceremony of smiling diplomats from both Palestine and Israel. Why not add to that worldwide-televised event a ceremonial wedding, with actors and actresses portraying the peoples of Israel and Palestine? A man and a woman from each nation, just to keep sexism out of the symbolism, ‘marrying’ a reciprocal man and woman from the other nation.

    Think it’s crazy? Then ponder this: tribal societies around the world make and cement alliances via weddings.

    (Thanks, jdyer and Joshua H!)

  • jdyer

    ““That’s the goal! Less national identity in favor of a worldly one!â€?”

    Easy to say if English or some other world language is your mother tongue.

    Everyone else is supposed to give up their national language and culture for the sake of a “wordly one.”

    The therm “wordly” has Christian religious connotations that is will not be acceptable to people of faiths or non-religious people.

  • I tuned in late to this show and will listen again to the podcast. I want to hear the whole thing. I’d posted the below comment on the fraper site in response to the ROS show on images a few days ago…

    I just watched the film Syrian Bride an Isreali film with both Palestinian and Jewish Isreali actors about a Syrian family and a wedding that takes place on the Syrian Isreali border. This is a different kind of image making than what has been discussed so far here. It has a point of view but is not pushing a political agenda. Propoganda imagery promotes an agenda . I watched a “special feature” on the DVD, an interview with Palestinian actress Hiam Abass. She said that the political borders drop on the cinama set. I thought the message was clear. MAKE ART NOT WAR

  • joshua hendrickson

    jdyer,

    Thanks for the clarification on what you meant about writers not being trusted. I agree, bald-faced political hackery is not very useful, but it certainly wasn’t what I had in mind.

    Re: your query:

    I am a fantasist, but PLEASE do not take that to equate with escapism. I am keenly aware of and concerned with the real world, and with real human characters, but as a fiction writer, I am not comfortable setting my stories in the real world. I prefer to use the unfettered-but-guided imagination to explore real-world possibilities through metaphor, rather than restrict myself to realism which, I am afraid, I would not handle with the adroitness and accuracy of those realistic fiction writers whom I love as much as the fantasists.

    And no, I am not published. I began writing novels early (at 15) and attempted to publish those without success. Only later, with the onset of maturity, did I come to understand the value of re-writing, and over the last twenty years, I have been honing my skills and prose to a point where, with luck, I will be ready to submit my work to a publisher by 2010 or so. But that’s okay; as someone once said, 40 is springtime for the novelist.

  • jdyer

    “I am a fantasist, but PLEASE do not take that to equate with escapism. I am keenly aware of and concerned with the real world, and with real human characters, but as a fiction writer, I am not comfortable setting my stories in the real world.”

    Joshua, some of my favorite writers from Kafka, Bruno Schultz and Borges, to Ursula LeGuinn, Gabriel Garcia Marques and Meir Shalev {The Blue Mountain} are “fantasist.” (There are too many writers from henry James to Italo Calvino who use this genre which I like to mention them all.)

    The fantastic is one of the most glorious genres invented by the scribbling mind.

    Are you familiar with Todorov’s book on the “fantastic.”

  • joshua hendrickson

    Jdyer,

    Thanks for your kind reply. I get defensive sometimes about my role as a fantasist; so many readers sneer at fantasy as escapism (including one of my exes); it is a relief to know you are not one of them.

    I have not (but now plan to) read Todorov’s book; never heard of it, actually. Neither have I heard of Schultz or Shalev. I’ve not read enough Kafka or Marquez to honestly claim them as favorites, but Borges and LeGuin are way up on my list. (I met Ursula LeGuin once, when I was a teenager; it was a key moment in my development as a writer, I believe.) Henry James I know of, but haven’t read; Italo Calvino is on my list of must-read-soon authors, especially his book “Cosmicomics”, which I understand would be right up my alley. As far as fantastic/speculative writers go, though, my very favorite is Gene Wolfe, whose prose is exquisite and whose imagination is stunning.

    As an aside, I agree with you vis a vis the term “worldly.” Its Christian connotations render it unfitting for such a use. Cultural biases aside, though, our globalized globe (this is getting weird, at least in a linguistic sense) really does need some universal concepts/ethics/laws to help us recognize our common humanity–though not, I would argue, to keep commerce afloat, but to establish some (finally!) universal standard of decency.

  • Potter

    Joshua Hendrickson And it is only through the imagination that anything–the enemy’s side or even your own side–can truly be understood.

    Lisa Hochman What facinates me are the stories of people who raise above their situation. Is there a common thread that identifies people who do not become one dimentional ( I would personally characterise it as identifying with the most primitive, tribal aspect of oneself).[sic]

    Peggy Sue MAKE ART NOT WAR

    So I add to that my thought which is that the creative act itself ( any medium) liberates, changes a person’s perspective, cleanses the soul. Grabbing onto that creative spark and nurturing it is also a way out of deep suffering. Maybe the suffering pours out and into the art transformed. Magic. And it’s also healing. I had the feeling that Keret and el-Youssef were trying to heal the deep hurt between their people by coming together as it seemed Barenboim and Said were doing. Their friendship is a defiance and a refusal.

    Too bad our educators do not seem to realize the power of teaching the arts. This as the first thing to go with budget cuts in the schools.

    ROS- wonderful show!! So much goodness and truth emanating from both guests. I felt drawn like a moth to light.

    I recommend Terri Gross’ Fresh Air wonderful separate interviews with Keret and el-Youssef which complement this show.

    Too bad “Gaza Blues� is not available here

  • Old Nick

    Potter: yeah, I was able to order Keret’s Bus Driver compilation last night from Powell’s but nothing of Samir’s.

    So I just now found this:

    http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/3630620256/103-2529961-0019026?n=283155

    Looks like supplies are limited (and beyond my budget), so good luck in snagging one.

  • jdyer

    joshua hendrickson Says:

    August 4th, 2006 at 4:06 pm

    Jdyer,

    “Thanks for your kind reply. I get defensive sometimes about my role as a fantasist; so many readers sneer at fantasy as escapism (including one of my exes); it is a relief to know you are not one of them.”

    That’s because reading comprehension has been dropping, dropping, dropping….along with historical knowledge, etc.

    Best antidote is to tune out and just read your head off.

    “As an aside, I agree with you vis a vis the term “worldly.� Its Christian connotations render it unfitting for such a use.�

    Yes, but you can’t separate the desire for a universal culture from Christian (and Muslim) universalism.

    “Cultural biases aside, though, our globalized globe (this is getting weird, at least in a linguistic sense) really does need some universal concepts/ethics/laws to help us recognize our common humanity–though not, I would argue, to keep commerce afloat, but to establish some (finally!) universal standard of decency.�

    There are universalists and there are particularists in this world. I am of the latter camp. Everything worthwhile is local and particular and not universal. All great poetry, art, literature, film, song is cultural specific. That it transcends its particular moment doesn’t make it universal it makes it great.

    Universal culture, otoh, is no culture but imitation culture. It’s people talking about universal culture in their particular corner and in their own dialect.

    It’s harder to see this in here because we speak one of the world’s universal languages, but if you go to say Finland (or South Korea) were people speak a difficult (for us) local language than you will how much gets lost in translation.

    I don’t have to go into this right now, but we should all be fighting for the preservation of local culture and customs and not for their integration into some utopian universal culture which is merely a pipe dream or a bad fantasy.

  • jdyer

    I have read some stories by Keret and they are very good.

    However, he is still developing his style. I’d give him another decade or so before I start calling him a “great writer.”

    Here is another interview with Keret that you can read as well as listen:

    http://www.nextbook.org/cultural/feature.html?id=329

    nextbook.org is one of my favorite website where you can find a goldmine of interesting (and not so great) contemporary writing.

  • jdyer

    Joshua Hendrickson:

    “I have not (but now plan to) read Todorov’s book; never heard of it, actually. Neither have I heard of Schultz or Shalev.”

    About Todorov’s book:

    The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre (Cornell Paperbacks)

    http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0801491460/sr=1-1/qid=1154732691/ref=sr_1_1/002-1371441-5423247?ie=UTF8&s=books

    About Bruno Schultz who wrote in Polish:

    The Complete Fiction of Bruno Schultz: The Street of Crocodiles, Sanatorium Under the Sign of the Hourglass (Hardcover)

    by Bruno Schulz, Celina Wieniewska (Translator)

    http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0802710913/sr=1-1/qid=1154732748/ref=sr_1_1/002-1371441-5423247?ie=UTF8&s=books

    About Shalev:

    The Blue Mountain (Paperback)

    by Meir Shalev, Hillel Halkin (Translator)

    http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1841952427/ref=sr_11_1/002-1371441-5423247?ie=UTF8

  • joshua hendrickson

    Jdyer,

    I agree; works that transcend their particular moments may well be defined as “great.” Why that does not translate into “universal” eludes me, though; the concepts to me seem synonymous. Which is not to say that “universal culture” equals “greatness.” Indeed, I don’t think any culture in and of itself is great–only individual works of art from within a culture can be described thus.

    Sorry to disappoint you though: unlike you, I’m not much of one for the preservation of particular cultures and heritages. They come and go; some are welcome, and some ought to be relegated to history’s dustbin. I guess I am something of a utopian, though one who lacks the more ridiculous notions of how to bring something like that about, and more to the point, I do not believe that even a utopia, once achieved, could last forever without becoming its opposite. As the great Russian writer Evgeny Zamyatin said (much to the consternation of the likes of Lenin and Stalin), “There is no final revolution.” Pipe dream? Sure. Bad fantasy? I would say it is fantasy, but not a bad one. Orders of magnitude better than our current mess, or its logical culmination, apocalypse–now there’s a bad fantasy … and the worst of realities. Christian and Islamic universalism, I would argue, fall into the apocalyptic fantasy–everyone has to be like me or else.

    Thanks for the background on those writers.

  • jdyer

    joshua hendrickson Says:

    August 4th, 2006 at 6:52 pm

    “Sorry to disappoint you though: unlike you, I’m not much of one for the preservation of particular cultures and heritages.”

    I am noit dissapointed, au contraire. I expected that you would endorse a universalism of the moment.

    You argue it very well and I hope you will at some point transpose your views into fiction.

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  • neiln

    Subject: RE Israel-Hez War FACT CHECK

    Please see if this can be substantiated–

    FACT CHECK — 2 Israeli soldiers were IN LEBANON when captured, July 12, ’06, the incident cited by Israeli in its war against Hezbollah.

    QUOTE Israel’s bombardment of Lebanon has not occurred because Hezbollah captured 2 Israeli soldiers (who were in Lebanon when captured) it was only the excuse to instigate a plan which had already been planned, by the Israeli Zionists, the US Neo-Cons and the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC). Israel and the U.S.: What I Believe, Bobbie Christian, http://www.bushwatch.com/miscellanea.htm#bobbie

    Thanks,

    Neil

  • fiddlesticks

    “Please see if this can be substantiated–”

    Neiln sounds like an anti-Semitic troll to me.

  • nabobnico

    This is put better than I could ever put it; it addresses the core problem I think we have aall been circling on this thread, and one which deserves our close attention….

    A Letter from 18 Writers

    including three Nobel Prize recipients

    The latest chapter of the conflict between Israel and Palestine began when Israeli forces abducted two civilians, a doctor and his brother, from Gaza. An incident scarcely reported anywhere, except in the Turkish press. The following day the Palestinians took an Israeli soldier prisoner–and proposed a negotiated exchange against prisoners taken by the Israelis–there are approximately 10,000 in Israeli jails.

    That this “kidnapping” was considered an outrage, whereas the illegal military occupation of the West Bank and the systematic appropriation of its natural resources–most particularly that of water–by the Israeli Defense (!) Forces is considered a regrettable but realistic fact of life, is typical of the double standards repeatedly employed by the West in face of what has befallen the Palestinians, on the land allotted to them by international agreements, during the last seventy years.

    Today outrage follows outrage; makeshift missiles cross sophisticated ones. The latter usually find their target situated where the disinherited and crowded poor live, waiting for what was once called Justice. Both categories of missile rip bodies apart horribly–who but field commanders can forget this for a moment?

    Each provocation and counter-provocation is contested and preached over. But the subsequent arguments, accusations and vows, all serve as a distraction in order to divert world attention from a long-term military, economic and geographic practice whose political aim is nothing less than the liquidation of the Palestinian nation.

    This has to be said loud and clear, for the practice, only half declared and often covert, is advancing fast these days, and, in our opinion, it must be unceasingly and eternally recognized for what it is and resisted.

    PS: As Juliano Mer Khamis, director of the documentary film Arna’s Children, asked: “Who is going to paint the ‘Guernica’ of Lebanon?”

    John Berger

    Noam Chomsky

    Harold Pinter

    José Saramago

    Eduardo Galeano

    Arundhati Roy

    Naomi Klein

    Howard Zinn

    Charles Glass

    Richard Falk

    Gore Vidal

    Russell Banks

    Thomas Keneally

    Chris Abani

    Carolyn Forché

    Martín Espada

    Jessica Hagedorn

    Toni Morrison

  • zeke

    A sad footnote for anyone still following this thread. Israeli author David Grossman’s son, Uri, a twenty year old tank commander, was killed in southern Lebanon. He was killed after the UN voted for the cease fire resolution. He was due to be released from the Army in November and planned to study theater.

    http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3290763,00.html

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